In India’s big cities, like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangaluru and Chennai, there are a lot of cars on the roads and highways, and hence traffic is a big problem. This problem happens when the number of vehicles grows faster than the number of roads, which makes travel times longer. Because of this, many businesses and enterprises have to pay a lot of money and deal with a lot of trouble, especially those that need a lot of transportation activity per unit of production, and less money is put into transportation infrastructure. This has a negative effect on the economy, the environment, and society as a whole. Due to weaving at intersections, cars lose a lot of time and money because of traffic. Even though a lot of money and time has been spent and put into solving traffic problems, especially in big cities, not much progress has been reported. No matter how much technology or infrastructure improves or how many people move to a city, traffic always gets worse.
What is Traffic Congestion?
Congestion in the transportation system is a condition that is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. Congestion can also be referred to as traffic jams. Since the 1950s, there has been a significant rise in the amount of congestion that can be found on urban road networks. Congestion happens when the demand for traffic is high enough that the interaction between vehicles slows down the speed of the traffic stream. This can happen when there is a lot of traffic. Although it is possible for congestion to occur with any mode of transportation, the focus of this article will be on the traffic caused by automobiles on public roads.
Extreme traffic congestion develops when the amount of demand on a road approaches the capacity of the road itself (or of the intersections along the road). A traffic jam or a traffic snarl-up occurs when all of the vehicles on the road come to a complete stop for an extended period of time. Drivers who are already frustrated as a result of traffic congestion are more likely to engage in aggressive driving.
The Concept of Smart Parking
Smart Parking is a parking strategy that combines technology and human innovation in an effort to use as few resources as possible, such as fuel, time, and space, to achieve faster, easier, and more dense parking of vehicles during the majority of the time they are idle.Planners in densely populated cities have come to the conclusion that simply adding more parking spots will not necessarily alleviate traffic congestion in these cities. Instead, we need improved management of the spaces that are already available. The use of intelligent parking technology could significantly reduce traffic congestion by streamlining the parking process for motorists as well as parking lot operators. And hence, the concept os Smart Parking System has come into picture since then.
Why Government Agencies, Leading Developers & Top Multi National Companies are shifting towards SMART PARKING SYSTEM
The implementation of intelligent parking solutions can help users live better lives by streamlining their day-to-day activities, decreasing their dependence on fossil fuels and their contribution to environmental pollution, and easing congestion in congested urban areas. These parking systems not only make it easier for users to locate an open parking spot in public and private facilities, but they also make traffic flow more smoothly. This results in increased convenience for users and an overall improvement to the quality of their experience. Because of advancements in digital technology, intelligent parking systems are now able to provide solutions that speed up mobility and automation. Because of this, a growing number of businesses that fall into specific niche markets, such as shopping malls, airports, hospitals, universities, and others, have made the decision to implement methods that enable them to manage their parking facilities in an effective and efficient manner. The implementation of parking management technology increases operational efficiency, which in turn simplifies traffic flows in cities and provides motorists with a more pleasurable, secure, and risk-free driving experience, in addition to giving them more time back in their day. Because of the ongoing technological advancements that are being made in the parking industry, there is a growing number of parking applications that are geared towards making driver mobility better. The most appropriate choice for parking facility operators who want to bring convenience to their users is a parking facility with the latest guidance and ANPR system technology. This is because these technologies give users a type of information and advantages that they would not have if they had decided to park in a facility that was more conventional.
How Smart Parking Works?
The Internet of Things sensors that have been installed are able to make an accurate determination of the locations of any vacant parking spaces. The data from these Internet of Things devices are sent to a cloud server via a wireless connection. Those who are looking for a parking space can access a map of available spots in the cloud or through a mobile application that is created using the data that is sent from the parking lot by the sensors. This data is collected and analysed in real time.
The IoT sensors that have been installed are able to make an accurate determination of the locations of any vacant parking spaces. The data from these IoTdevices are sent to a cloud server via a wireless connection. Those who are looking for a parking space can access a map of available spots in the cloud or through a mobile application that is created using the data that is sent from the parking lot by the sensors. This data is collected and analysed in real time.
The number of parking spots in a parking lot serves as a criterion for determining the necessary software and hardware components for Internet of Things configuration and system architecture. It is recommended to use a gateway and the LPWAN ( Low- Power Wide- Area Network) protocol for the parking lot sensors when dealing with large parking lots.
The Internet of Things-based smart parking system makes use of a variety of sensors, including infrared, ultrasonic, and detection of electromagnetic fields. The utilisation of ultrasound for the purpose of measurement detection results in an improvement in the precision of the sensing. Electromagnetic Field Detection: When metal objects are brought into close proximity to the sensor, this sensor is able to detect minute shifts in the magnetic field. Infrared sensors are those that detect motion and measure the degree to which the temperature of their surroundings has changed.
An IoT Dashboard (ideally, one that is hosted in the cloud) should collect sensor data and process it into clear, concise, and, to the greatest extent possible, visual insights regarding the occupancy of parking spaces within the facility. A practical parking system that is based on the Internet of Things should give drivers the ability to view, in real time, the number of open parking spots that are available at each parking facility in the city. An interactive occupancy map is likely the feature that is most crucial to the success of an IoT-based parking system and is an absolute necessity.
Negative Effects Of Traffic Congestion
- The waste of time on the part of drivers and passengers (“opportunity cost”). Congestion is detrimental to the economic health of a region because it forces most people to engage in non-productive activities.
- Delays, which can result in late arrival for employment, meetings, and education, potentially resulting in lost business, disciplinary action, or other personal losses.
- The inability to accurately predict the amount of time needed for travel, which results in drivers allotting more time for “what if there is a traffic jam” and spending less time on activities that produce value.
- The wasting of fuel, which contributes to an increase in air pollution and emissions of carbon dioxide as a result of increased idling, acceleration, and braking.
- Excessive wear and tear on vehicles as a result of extended periods of idling while stuck in traffic as well as frequent acceleration and deceleration, which results in a higher need for repairs and replacements.
- An increase in the number of tense and angry drivers, which contributes to an overall decline in the health of motorists
- Emergencies: If there is a backup in traffic, it could potentially obstruct the path of emergency vehicles that are trying to get to locations where they are urgently needed.
- The effect that traffic on congested main arteries has on secondary roads and side streets, as drivers try to find alternative routes (also known as “rat running”), which may have an impact on the quality of life in the neighbourhood and real estate prices.
- There is a greater chance of collisions as a result of the close spacing and the continuous starting and stopping.
BENEFITS OF SMART PARKING SYSTEM
- Real- Time Monitoring of Parking Space: It helps in simplifying the search for Parking spots and speed up the parking process, and track the parking availability in real-time to ensure that a driver’s time is not wasted driving around jam-packed parking lots.
- Converting a Visitor to a Happy Customer: It is often said that a happy customer is a repeat customer. By ensuring a hassle free entry and exit to your building premises, the chances of converting a visitor to a customer and a Customer to a happy customer, increases manifolds.
- Space and Time Optimzation: There will be a decrease in the number of vehicles that drive around on crowded city roads in search of parking spots. There will be less search traffic on the street as a result of the increased convenience provided by intelligent parking systems in locating an available spot. Because of this, the problem of traffic jams can be alleviated to some degree, which will enable city residents to save time on production. Tools for managing parking facilities that are based on the Internet of Things will assist business owners in making the most of the space that is available. For example, a parking management system will make necessary adjustments to the metre rates in response to the amount of people currently utilising the facility. When there is a high population density of vehicles, it is possible for fares to be raised. Additionally, the use of automated metre renewal tools will assist parking facilities in increasing their revenue and luring in new customers.